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ES 215 Research Methods Class Guide

Introduction

Once you have located sources for your project, you will want to make sure that they are used responsibly. Here is a guide on using APA citation style.

Created by the American Psychological Association, APA style is used for:

  • Anthropology
  • Business (often uses Chicago style too)
  • Education
  • Library Science
  • Psychology

The Basic Formula for APA Style

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy

Example:

  • Written by one author: Kurtz, T. G. (1972). A random trotter product formula. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society35(1), 147–148. https://doi.org/10.1090/S0002-9939-1972-0303347-5
  • Written by multiple authors: Zhang, X., Moore, C., & Newman, M. E. J. (2017). Random graph models for dynamic networks. The European Physical Journal B : Condensed Matter and Complex Systems90(10), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80122-8
  • Written by no authors: Random thoughts: "hose stuff". (1999). Fire Engineering152(6), 140–140.

Traditional Print books:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.

Examples: 

  • Anderson, C. White rage : the unspoken truth of our racial divide. Bloomsbury.
  • Kendi, I. X. How to be an antiracist. One World.
  • Oluo, I. So you want to talk about race. Seal Press.

Electronic books:

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL

*It is only necessary to denote format when the electronic version differs from the traditional print version.*

Audiobooks:

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher.

*It is only necessary to denote format when the audiobook version differs from the traditional print version in some way (is abridged or has additional content).*

Traditional print news article:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pages.

  • Collins-Hughes, L. (2020, August 1). Provincetown: Go for the mask compliance: Stay for the show. New York Times, C1. 

Online news article (from a publisher with a physical newspaper):

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL

Online news article (from a publisher wihtout a physical newspaper):

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Name of publishing website. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Photographer, P. (Year of publication). Title of image [Image type]. Source. URL

Examples:

If the author isn't a person, but a group, use the groups name:

If you don't know the title of the image, use a short description in brackets as the title:

Blogpost:

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL

Facebook:

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

Instagram:

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

Twitter:

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words[Tweet]. Site Name. URL

YouTube (or other streaming video):

Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL

In-Line Citations

Whenever you use a resource and directly quote the source or paraphrase some of their ideas in your own paper, you need to cite the source in-line. This is the case when using sources in PowerPoints as well. You also must cite your sources when you are using an image in your paper or PowerPoint. All citations need to be in your References at the end of your paper or as your last slide, as well.

For more information see the below examples:

For short direct quotes, make sure to include author's last name, year of publication, and page number. If paraphrasing the author's ideas from the article, you do not need to include the page number, but you still are required to cite your work using author and date. This format applies to all short in-text citations, regardless of whether you are citing a book, journal article, website, or something else.

Examples:

  • According to Smith (2020), "kumquats are the best fruit in all of existence" (p. 84).
  • There has been much discussion about the flavor of fruit, but "kumquats are the best fruit in all of existence" (Smith, 2020, p. 84).
  • Debate surrounds the best tasting fruit, but Smith (2020) argues that kumquats are superior.

If there are two authors of a work, use both last names separated by an ampersand (&). If there are three or more authors, use the first name listed and "et al."

Examples:

  •  According to Smith & Jones (2018), "apples are better than kumquats" (p. 68).
  • While I believe that kumquats are the best fruit, some believe "apples are better than kumquats" (Smith et al., 2019, p. 24).

Don't know the date? Just use n.d. instead. If you're using a web source and don't have page numbers, you'll have to count the paragraph number instead and notate it using para.

Examples:

  • While kumquats taste good, "the best fruit to put on toast is avocados" (Smith, n.d., p. 25).
  • Smith (1964) indicates that "avocados taste best when they are mashed" (para. 46).

For even more information on APA in-text citations, visit Purdue OWL's guide here. Have questions or you're still unsure? Ask research@bridgewater.edu.

For longer in-text citations, you will need to format your citation using a block quote. Long quotations are characterized as 40 or more words. To create a block quote, you will want to use a 1/2" left-indent.

Example:

There are many ways to plagiarize, but:

Most people do not set out to deliberately plagiarize. In many cases it occurs because students simply don't know how to properly cite the sources for their papers or projects. The best way to avoid and prevent plagiarism is to understand how to use the style guides like MLA, APA, or Chicago. Each profession has its own citation style, and you can find guides for each in the library's collection. You can also find tutorials and assistance through the Bridgewater Writing Center located in the Forrer Learning Commons. (Baugher, 2020, para. 1).

Unsure how to do this? Well, simply select all of the text you would like to turn into a block quote and use the Tab key on your keyboard. This will create the 1/2" indent that you will need.

A note on using images: do not use an image in a PowerPoint or your paper without express permission of the original copyright owner. If you would like to include an image in your work, please ensure that you get the image from a source that allows for public use through Creative Commons licensing. Looking for a photograph? Try:


In APA style, images are treated as if they are figures.

Figure #. Photograph of XYZ. From Title of Image, by Image Creator, Year, Retrieved from URL.

Example:


  • Figure 1. Photograph of cherry trees at Bridgewater College gate. From Bridgewater College gate, by Alma Mater, 2006, Retrieved from https://ccsearch-dev.creativecommons.org/photos/b70ac89e-9400-4cfc-b305-158de3f3e8a9.

Citation Generators

To transform the above information into a proper citation, you'll need to consult the appropriate style guide. The library has copies of each guide available for use. You also may want to use one of the many citation management/generator tools that are available either for free or a subscription fee.

A word of caution when using tools such as those listed below. Don't assume that the citation is correct, instead always verify the citation before turning in your paper. Glitches and uncommon formatting can cause trouble for these automatic generators.

 

Many library databases also include an automatic citation option. This is normally indicated by a quotation mark symbol. If you're using the library's Discovery system to find articles, you are able to use the citation function directly through there. This is a great resource, but remember to proofread the citation. Notice here how the citation created reads "INSERT-MISSING-URL". 

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