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BIOL 350 Ecology Class Guide


Each subject area and discipline has a favored citation style (like APA or MLA). In the sciences you will also find that individual journals may required a unique style format for their submissions.

The resources on this page focus specifically on the style format required for the Journal of Ecology and the Journal of Wildlife Management. Though these styles have similarities with citation styles you may have used in the past, some of the requirements and organizational structure are unique to this style and should be followed closely.

Where to Start

The purpose of each citation is to indicate where the information came from, and to provide the reader with enough information to access the original source. The type of source can effect the citation, but typically every citation requires the following information:

  • Author
  • Title (of book, article, or journal)
  • Publisher
  • Publication date
  • Page numbers
  • Volume and issue number (for journals)
  • URL (if a web source)
  • Database name (if from a library database)
  • Access date (if it's an electronic source)

In a print book or journal, most of this can be found at the beginning of the source:


Title page of the book The World Without Us


 Image of the publication information inside a book



In online databases, the article's record (what you see when you first discover the article) should contain all the necessary information:

Citation information from article