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FILA 150 Women in Music Class Guide

Research Help

Contact Research Librarians


Special Collections
For assistance with primary sources related to:

  • Bridgewater College
  • Church of the Brethren
  • regional history materials
  • the Reuel B. Pritchett Museum Collection

Stephanie Gardner

Need Help with Citations?

Try reaching out to the Writing Center if you're having trouble with citing your sources. They're available to help you at any time during your Bridgewater career and are available to help you with the format of your paper, the style, the grammar/punctuation, the citations, and anything else pertaining to writing a paper.

Email to set up an appointment.


Once you have located your sources, you will have to make sure that you use them responsibly. The main component to this is citing the sources correctly.

For this class, you'll want to use APA citation style. For further guidance on how to use this citation style, visit Purdue OWL's APA guide (also embedded at the bottom of this page). If you're having trouble with these citations, I would be more than happy to assist you with them. Feel free to ask at

Where to Start

The purpose of each citation is to indicate where the information came from, and to provide the reader with enough information to access the original source. The type of source can effect the citation, but typically every citation requires the following information:

  • Author
  • Title (of book, article, or journal)
  • Publisher
  • Publication date
  • Page numbers
  • Volume and issue number (for journals)
  • URL (if a web source)
  • Database name (if from a library database)
  • Access date (if its an electronic source)

In online databases, the article's record (what you see when you first discover the article) should contain all the necessary information:

Citation information from article

In a print book or journal, most of this can be found at the beginning of the source:


Title page of the book The World Without Us


 Image of the publication information inside a book


Creating the Citation

Once you have the above information collected, you'll want to construct the citation. For the general format of APA citations for the more commonly cited materials, please see below:

The Basic Formula for APA Style

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.


  • Written by one author: Kurtz, T. G. (1972). A random trotter product formula. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society35(1), 147–148.
  • Written by multiple authors: Zhang, X., Moore, C., & Newman, M. E. J. (2017). Random graph models for dynamic networks. The European Physical Journal B : Condensed Matter and Complex Systems90(10), 1–14.
  • Written by no authors: Random thoughts: "hose stuff". (1999). Fire Engineering152(6), 140–140.

Traditional Print books:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name.


  • Anderson, C. White rage : the unspoken truth of our racial divide. Bloomsbury.
  • Kendi, I. X. How to be an antiracist. One World.
  • Oluo, I. So you want to talk about race. Seal Press.

Electronic books:

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL

*It is only necessary to denote format when the electronic version differs from the traditional print version.*


Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher.

*It is only necessary to denote format when the audiobook version differs from the traditional print version in some way (is abridged or has additional content).*

Traditional print news article:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, pages.

  • Collins-Hughes, L. (2020, August 1). Provincetown: Go for the mask compliance: Stay for the show. New York Times, C1. 

Online news article (from a publisher with a physical newspaper):

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL

Online news article (from a publisher wihtout a physical newspaper):

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Name of publishing website. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Photographer, P. (Year of publication). Title of image [Image type]. Source. URL


If the author isn't a person, but a group, use the groups name:

If you don't know the title of the image, use a short description in brackets as the title:


Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL


Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL


Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL


Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words[Tweet]. Site Name. URL

YouTube (or other streaming video):

Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL

Citation Generators

To transform the above information into a proper citation, you'll need to consult the appropriate style guide. The library has copies of each guide available for use. You also may want to use one of the many citation management/generator tools that are available either for free or a subscription fee.

A word of caution when using tools such as those listed below. Don't assume that the citation is correct, instead always verify the citation before turning in your paper. Glitches and uncommon formatting can cause trouble for these automatic generators.


Many library databases also include an automatic citation option. This is normally indicated by a quotation mark symbol. If you're using the library's Discovery system to find articles, you are able to use the citation function directly through there. This is a great resource, but remember to proofread the citation. Notice here how the citation created reads "INSERT-MISSING-URL". 


Purdue OWL's APA Guide